(Stages of Development)
Sigmund Freud is known as father of psycho-sexual theory of development. He was born in 1856 in Austor-Hungarian, to a family of merchant. His theory has remained to be the most comprehensive and influential of personality created till present. His method of free association with patient’s (though instructed) to open up and say everything that comes to mind, irrespective of the level of embarrassment it may seem. The ‘open up’ was achieved through recalling dreams, and early childhood memories those reflected signs of unconscious wishes and fears. Several such studies led him to compare human mind to an iceberg which consisted of three parts –
a. Conscious (The part which we are aware)
b. Pre-conscious (The part which consists of dream state, recent experience)
c. Unconscious (The part which we are not aware such as fear, passion)
The unconscious part is larger, as we are aware of the very small conscious at any given time. Hence the theory was linkened to an iceberg, that has majority of portion buried beneath the water’s surface. The water represent portion of that we aren’t aware of, unexperienced circumstances, and that isn’t integral part of our personalities, referred to the as non conscious.
He also said that the unconscious consists of three parts –
1. Id – This is already present since birth operating by the principle of pleasure through inner world of opinions and feelings. Examples – Nutritional, Sexual
2. Ego – This deals with external reality, while a person realises that the impulses cannot be achieved immediately ‘ego’ part reflects through reality than thoughts and opinions. It works on the principles of reality. This is also a stage between id and superego
3. Superego – This represents the moral standards or thing, not the one that feels the best but the one which distinguishes the right and wrong.
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